The spinal canal is the passageway where the spinal cord and nerve roots reside. Spinal stenosis results when the canal is narrowed. The narrowing may result from disc protrusions or herniations, thickening of the ligaments within the canal, movement of the vertebral bodies or osteophytes (bone spurs) growing into the canal.
Non-surgical options include medication, physical therapy and epidural injections. Surgical treatment generally consists of spinal decompression, with or without fusion, to enlarge the spinal canal and relieve the pressure on the nerves.